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090560 Thermodynamic Analysis of the Formation of Black Powder in Sales Gas Pipelines

Product Number: 51300-0090560-SG
ISBN: 090560 2009 CP
Author: Abdelmounam, M. Sherik and Boyd R. Davis
Publication Date: 2009
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The product of reactions between steel pipelines and some species in processed natural gas is a significant concern to the gas industry. The corrosion product, which is a mix of iron oxides, sulphides, and carbonates, has several impacts on pipeline operations and must be periodically removed by pigging the pipeline. The difficulty in understanding the mechanisms of formation of this material comes in large part from the non-uniform conditions, such as water dew point, H2S, CO2 and O2 concentrations, in the pipeline.

This paper provides an evaluation of the application of chemical thermodynamics to the formation of this material - what is commonly known in the gas industry as black powder. Given the complex nature of the formation of black powder, it was decided to study the formation and stabilities of various iron phases, namely iron oxides, sulfides and carbonates as well as elemental sulfur in sales gas pipeline environments.

Our findings show that thermodynamics can be a useful tool to indicate what can, and cannot, possibly form under dewing conditions; however, compositional analysis of the powder can assist in directing the calculations. Due to these uncertainties, the results should be used as a guide to better understand the corrosion mechanisms inside the pipeline.

Keywords: black powder, computational thermodynamics, internal corrosion, Sales Gas, moisture content
The product of reactions between steel pipelines and some species in processed natural gas is a significant concern to the gas industry. The corrosion product, which is a mix of iron oxides, sulphides, and carbonates, has several impacts on pipeline operations and must be periodically removed by pigging the pipeline. The difficulty in understanding the mechanisms of formation of this material comes in large part from the non-uniform conditions, such as water dew point, H2S, CO2 and O2 concentrations, in the pipeline.

This paper provides an evaluation of the application of chemical thermodynamics to the formation of this material - what is commonly known in the gas industry as black powder. Given the complex nature of the formation of black powder, it was decided to study the formation and stabilities of various iron phases, namely iron oxides, sulfides and carbonates as well as elemental sulfur in sales gas pipeline environments.

Our findings show that thermodynamics can be a useful tool to indicate what can, and cannot, possibly form under dewing conditions; however, compositional analysis of the powder can assist in directing the calculations. Due to these uncertainties, the results should be used as a guide to better understand the corrosion mechanisms inside the pipeline.

Keywords: black powder, computational thermodynamics, internal corrosion, Sales Gas, moisture content
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