The control of multiphase flow corrosion in oil and gas industry is one of the biggest challenging tasks. Since the 1990s, several organizations have established and operated large-scale flow loops to simulate and reproduce the field service environment of oil and gas pipelines. Based on comparison and investigation of the above loops, a new and advanced system, including several four inches internal diameter loops for studying corrosion under multiphase flows, was successfully built by us. By using this system, multiphase flows with various combinations of gas, water, oil and sand can be realized at the highest temperature of 140 oC and the highest pressure of 10 Mpa. Moreover, some loops in this system can adjust pipeline at different angels from 0 to 90°, which allow horizontal/vertical/sloping conditions to be simulated in laboratory. Many advanced measuring and monitoring technologies, such as Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), high speed video camera and LPR/ER probe, are employed for simultaneously recording flow events and corrosion rates. An inhouse plane three-electrode probe is employed for conducting in situ electrochemical measurements. Such technologies would allow deep researching of corrosion behaviors and mechanisms in multiphase flow environments. Moreover, a new software based on Fluent and the existing multiphase corrosion models was developed to realize the numerical simulation of multiphase flow in loop.
This paper discusses the journey Saudi Aramco took during the last decade to introduce the concept of an integrated CM and the associated digital challenges. The focus will be on the online Corrosion Management Dashboard (CMDB) development, deployment, maintenance, and finally transformation. The CMDB scope was recently shifted from monitoring the compliance of corrosion-related parameters to predict CM performance by using the combined effect of different parameters. However, with a void in CM digitalization mandate, effort may not be focused or they do not eventually achieve their full potential.
Various aspects of the mechanism of C02 corrosion are reviewed, together with a discussion about the validity of a number of simplifications which can be used with models for predicting the corrosion rate. A "worst case" rate can often be predicted. To this end a number of parameters has been identified, the
influence of which has to be accounted for. The effects of protective corrosion product layers and of dissolved corrosion product on pH needs to be included in the prediction. More quantitative information about the effect of flowpattern and flowrate is needed. For wet gas pipelines, the prediction of the effect of injection of glycol as a measure against corrosion is of special interest. Predictive models consisting of a system of rules and equations can be conveniently developed in computer spreadsheets.