Search
Filters
Close

Save up to 75% off Clearance Books.  No promo code needed.  Shop Now

51316-7263-CaCO3 Scale Risk Assessment - Thermodynamics vs Kinetics

Thermodynamic scale prediction and laboratorial kinetic study are two of the major scale risk assessment methods applied in the oil and gas industry.

Product Number: 51316-7263-SG
ISBN: 7263 2016 CP
Author: Tao Chen
Publication Date: 2016
$0.00
$20.00
$20.00

Thermodynamic scale prediction and laboratorial kinetic study are two of the major scale risk assessment methods applied in the oil and gas industry. The scale prediction calculations provide the equilibrium state in terms of saturation ratio or saturation index of water for different scale species and possibly the mass of each precipitated species in bulk precipitation. On the other hand laboratorial kinetic method studies the rate of scale surface deposition under dynamic conditions.In the work reported herein dynamic loop tests were carried out to study the CaCO3 deposition rate at 150oC in three water compositions with the same saturation ratio. These three water compositions represent a wide range of water chemistries encountered in the oil and gas industry i.e. high calcium and low bicarbonate concentrations medium calcium and medium bicarbonate concentrations and low calcium and high bicarbonate concentration.The following conclusions are drawn based on the test results.Saturation index generated by applied prediction software only qualitatively indicates the potential of scale formation based on the principles of thermodynamics in bulk solution. To truly asses scaling under field conditions the kinetics of scale surface deposition must be studied using appropriate experimental procedure and test parameters.Both thermodynamic scale prediction and laboratorial kinetic study should be applied in order to have a better understanding of scale scenario and scale management in the field.Compared to calcium bicarbonate is more dominant reaction specie for CaCO3 scale precipitation.The minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) is strongly related to bicarbonate. Water with high bicarbonate concentration requires much higher MIC level even if its saturation index is equivalent to the water with lower bicarbonate.This paper gives a comprehensive study of the kinetics of CaCO3 deposition considering the effects of calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The study encompasses thermodynamics prediction laboratory evaluation scale formation mechanisms and inhibitor selection. It will contribute to understand both thermodynamic and kinetics of CaCO3 formation and qualification of effective inhibitors for field application.

Key words: downloadable, calcium carbonate, scale, thermodynamic, kinetics, deposits

Thermodynamic scale prediction and laboratorial kinetic study are two of the major scale risk assessment methods applied in the oil and gas industry. The scale prediction calculations provide the equilibrium state in terms of saturation ratio or saturation index of water for different scale species and possibly the mass of each precipitated species in bulk precipitation. On the other hand laboratorial kinetic method studies the rate of scale surface deposition under dynamic conditions.In the work reported herein dynamic loop tests were carried out to study the CaCO3 deposition rate at 150oC in three water compositions with the same saturation ratio. These three water compositions represent a wide range of water chemistries encountered in the oil and gas industry i.e. high calcium and low bicarbonate concentrations medium calcium and medium bicarbonate concentrations and low calcium and high bicarbonate concentration.The following conclusions are drawn based on the test results.Saturation index generated by applied prediction software only qualitatively indicates the potential of scale formation based on the principles of thermodynamics in bulk solution. To truly asses scaling under field conditions the kinetics of scale surface deposition must be studied using appropriate experimental procedure and test parameters.Both thermodynamic scale prediction and laboratorial kinetic study should be applied in order to have a better understanding of scale scenario and scale management in the field.Compared to calcium bicarbonate is more dominant reaction specie for CaCO3 scale precipitation.The minimum inhibitor concentration (MIC) is strongly related to bicarbonate. Water with high bicarbonate concentration requires much higher MIC level even if its saturation index is equivalent to the water with lower bicarbonate.This paper gives a comprehensive study of the kinetics of CaCO3 deposition considering the effects of calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The study encompasses thermodynamics prediction laboratory evaluation scale formation mechanisms and inhibitor selection. It will contribute to understand both thermodynamic and kinetics of CaCO3 formation and qualification of effective inhibitors for field application.

Key words: downloadable, calcium carbonate, scale, thermodynamic, kinetics, deposits

Also Purchased
Picture for 07050 NEW MODELS FOR SCALE FORMATION AND DISSOLUTION
Available for download

07050 NEW MODELS FOR SCALE FORMATION AND DISSOLUTION

Product Number: 51300-07050-SG
ISBN: 07050 2007 CP
Author: George H. Nancollas, Lijun Wang, Zachary J. Henneman, and Patrick P. Emmerling
Publication Date: 2007
$20.00