Carbon steels, low alloy steels (LAS) and corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) used in the upstream oil and gas industry may be susceptible to localized corrosion. Several variables control the oc-currence of localized corrosion, including alloy composition, heat treatment, and environmental effects such as temperature, and concentration of chloride, oxygen and other species. Regard-ing carbon and LAS, it is recognized that even small concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can have an important effect on general corrosion rate when compared to environments where carbon dioxide (CO2) controlled the corrosion phenomenon. However, there are still several unknowns about the effect of H2S on pitting, which is the most common mode of sour service failure. Regarding CRA, there is contradictory information on the effect of H2S and CO2 in the environment and how it affects pitting corrosion initiation and propagation. The purpose of this review is to discuss the environmental effects, especially H2S and CO2 on pitting susceptibility of LAS and CRAs.
Keywords: low alloy steels, corrosion resistant alloys, localized corrosion, hydrogen sulfide, car-bon dioxide, passivation, PRE, chloride, temperature