Protective coatings are one of the main methods used in pipelines to protect them primarily from corrosion and wear. There are several types of coating technology systems and the desired properties of a good coating will change from one application to another. It is estimated that the value of the protective coatings market is around $3-4 billion dollars in Canada. Therefore analyzing the protective coating sector for potential opportunities becomes significant.In this review paper AITF investigates the pipeline coatings sector in order to determine gaps in currently available coating technologies. The objective is to determine future research directions and innovation opportunities. The scope of this work is protective coatings for transmission crude oil and natural gas pipelines. The main methodologies used here are stakeholder engagement (pipeline operators coating applicators and coating manufacturers and suppliers) and literature review.In this work AITF explores the physical limitations and technological gaps on current commercially available coatings. We also investigate the cycle of innovation and development as well as the process of accepting new coatings. Finally we discuss the regulations pertaining to coating selection and testing with special emphasis on the newly introduced Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Z245.30-14 standard and its associated impacts on Canadian coatings applicators and the coating supply chain in general.