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Picture for Technical Review on the Existence of Type B (Alumina) Inclusion at Hot Steel Making Process
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Technical Review on the Existence of Type B (Alumina) Inclusion at Hot Steel Making Process

Product Number: MPWT19-15601
Author: Yasser S. Al-Subhia, Mishal M. Al-Ashrahb*
Publication Date: 2019
$0.00

It is well known in the hot rolled steel making business that nonmetallic inclusions play critical
role in defining steel performance. The objective of this paper is to study laminations that were
detected via Phased Array UT system in X60MS Class-C High Frequency Welded Pipe intended for
offshore application. The linear intermittent laminations appear along the pipe and adjacent to
the weld seam from both sides at a width of 30 to 40 mm with various depths. Technical review
was carried out on 5 available pipes, pertaining to the same heat of the original pipe identified
earlier with lamination, through model experiments; both on the laboratory and on the industrial
scale. At the beginning, depth and distribution of detected laminations were analyzed by manual
UT mapping using normal beam probe. Metallurgical analysis via Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX)
was carried out on three samples to determine the chemical composition as well as the
morphology of the lamination. The type of inclusion which turned out to be type B (Alumina-
Al2O3) inclusion was identified by evaluating EDX results using Method A per ASTM E45. As it is
a pure material based incident, failure analysis was carried out by the steel maker to identify the
associated root causes from process control prospective and the appropriate preventive
measures to avoid reoccurrence. Eventually, the applied quality control measures during
manufacturing process of HFW pipes, represented in the deployment of UT systems, were
reviewed to identify the reason behind missing such important defect before pipes are being
shipped to the client.

Picture for Techniques for Inspecting Wall Thickness Metal Loss of Pipelines under Nonmetallic Sleeves
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Techniques for Inspecting Wall Thickness Metal Loss of Pipelines under Nonmetallic Sleeves

Product Number: MPWT19-14377
Author: Hatim Alhamdan, Fadhel Al Asfoor, Aziz Rehman, Rashed Alhajri
Publication Date: 2019
$0.00

Composite repairs have been applied to pipelines and piping systems for structural reinforcement after external corrosion. Such repairs may consist of glass or carbon fibers embedded in a matrix of epoxy. Typically, these repairs are hand applied using either wet lay-up systems or prefabricated rolls of composite sleeve. In some applications, pipeline continued corrosion growth under composite repairs were reported using Inline Inspection (ILI) which raises a concern about the integrity of the metallic piping under composite repairs. When continued corrosion is detected by ILI, a difficulty is typically faced due to the inability to measure pipeline remaining thickness under such repairs. To resolve this challenge, this paper will discuss multiple inspection and corrosion monitoring techniques for metal loss under composite repairs. To measure the pipeline wall thickness due to internal corrosion, one or more of the three (3) Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) technologies namely; Dynamic Response Spectroscopy (DRS), Multi-skip Ultrasonic (MS-UT) and digital radiography were evaluated and found capable. To monitor for external corrosion, a scheduled visual inspection of the composite repair would be the first inspection step. If the composite repair appears to be intact then the visual inspection would suffice and the repair should be acceptable to its design life. If the original defect is external corrosion and a scheduled visual inspection of the composite repair shows damage to the composite repair then inspection to assess the integrity of the substrate must be used before permanently fixing the composite repair. For this scenario, digital radiography or MS-UT are recommended to assess the condition of the substrate

Picture for Test Method for Coatings under Thermal Insulation
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Test Method for Coatings under Thermal Insulation

Product Number: 51314-4193-SG
ISBN: 4193 2014 CP
Author: Ole Knudsen
Publication Date: 2014
$0.00
Picture for The API RP 14E Erosional Velocity Equation: Origin Application Misuse Limitation and Alternative
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The API RP 14E Erosional Velocity Equation: Origin Application Misuse Limitation and Alternative

Product Number: 51319-13206-SG
Author: Fazlollah Madani Sani
Publication Date: 2019
$20.00

Erosion of mild steel lines and equipment during the production of hydrocarbons from underground reservoirs is a complex and not fully quantitatively understood phenomenon becoming even more intricate when electrochemical corrosion is included. Oil and gas companies have always tried to account for this phenomenon with simple models. Over the last 40 years the American Petroleum Institute recommended practice 14E (API RP 14E) erosional velocity equation has been used by many operators to estimate safe production velocities in erosive-corrosive service. The widespread use of API RP 14E is a result of it being simple to apply and requiring little in the way of inputs. However there is very little scientific backing for this approach. The API RP 14E erosional velocity equation is often quoted to be overly conservative and to unjustifiably restrict the production rate or overestimate required pipe sizes.The present workprovides a review of literature on the origin of the API RP 14E erosional velocity equation its limitations misuses applications and known alternatives. This review suggests that a proper erosion model would provide a better description for the vast majority of conditions in oil and gas production systems to determine the safe operating velocity while maintaining a maximum production capacity and using cheaper materials or smaller diameter pipelines. However these models are more complex and are therefore not as widely applied. Overall there are currently no simple and readily available alternative formulae for calculating the erosional velocity and resort in many cases is a semi-empirical approach that includes operational experience.Keywords:erosion API RP 14E erosional velocity erosive-corrosive service operational experience

Picture for The Application of Molecular Microbiological Methods for Early Warning of MIC in Pipelines
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The Application of Molecular Microbiological Methods for Early Warning of MIC in Pipelines

Product Number: 51313-02029-SG
ISBN: 02029 2013 CP
Author: Jan Larsen
Publication Date: 2013
$20.00
Picture for The Commercialization of Self-Healing Technology in Normal Epoxy Coatings
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The Commercialization of Self-Healing Technology in Normal Epoxy Coatings

Product Number: 51315-5790-SG
ISBN: 5790 2015 CP
Author: Lujie Ye
Publication Date: 2015
$20.00