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Inhibitory Activity of Biopolymers Synthetic Polymers and Phosphonates Against the Formation of Calcium Phosphate Scale in Cooling Water Systems

In this paper the performance of a variety of biopolymers and synthetic polymers as calcium phosphate inhibitors is evaluated under a variety of cooling system impurities. For comparison various commercially available phosphonates were also investigated.

Product Number: 51317--9013-SG
ISBN: 9013 2017 CP
Author: Amannie Kweik
Publication Date: 2017
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The precipitation of calcium phosphate is important in the fields of biology dentistry geology and industries such as potable water production waste water treatment milk pasteurization and automatic dishwashing. In addition calcium phosphates are important in industrial water treatment (i.e. cooling boiler desalination of sea/brackish waters) where precipitation and deposition of calcium phosphates on heat exchanger and reverse osmosis membrane surfaces can lead to a loss of system efficiency overheating unscheduled shutdown and ultimate expensive equipment failures. Effective control of calcium phosphate deposits continues to challenge the academic researchers and industrial technologists.Recently the problem of calcium phosphate scaling in industrial water system has become increasingly important. Higher orthophosphate levels are being encountered in cooling waters due to increased water reuse use of low quality make-up water such as waste water plant effluent and the use of organic phosphonate scale and corrosion inhibitors which are degraded to orthophosphate. The increased orthophosphate levels combined with alkaline operating conditions can lead to the formation of highly insoluble calcium phosphate scale deposits which are normally attributed to hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3OH HAP].The key to the efficacy of phosphates and phosphonates in stabilized phosphate and all-organic cooling water treatment formulations is the presence and performance of polymeric inhibitors/dispersants. The performance of polymeric additives used in these formulations is affected by various factors such as polymer architecture feed and recirculating water chemistry pH temperature soluble and insoluble impurities. In this paper the performance of a variety of biopolymers and synthetic polymers as calcium phosphate inhibitors is evaluated under a variety of cooling system impurities. For comparison various commercially available phosphonates were also investigated. Results reveal that polymer performance strongly depends on molecular weight ionic charge of the functional group and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of comonomers. Additionally low levels of residual flocculating/coagulating agents biocides and particulate matter exhibit varying degree of antagonistic effect on inhibitor performance.

Key words: calcium phosphate, inhibition, bio-, hybrid, synthetic polymers, phosphonates, cooling water systems

 

The precipitation of calcium phosphate is important in the fields of biology dentistry geology and industries such as potable water production waste water treatment milk pasteurization and automatic dishwashing. In addition calcium phosphates are important in industrial water treatment (i.e. cooling boiler desalination of sea/brackish waters) where precipitation and deposition of calcium phosphates on heat exchanger and reverse osmosis membrane surfaces can lead to a loss of system efficiency overheating unscheduled shutdown and ultimate expensive equipment failures. Effective control of calcium phosphate deposits continues to challenge the academic researchers and industrial technologists.Recently the problem of calcium phosphate scaling in industrial water system has become increasingly important. Higher orthophosphate levels are being encountered in cooling waters due to increased water reuse use of low quality make-up water such as waste water plant effluent and the use of organic phosphonate scale and corrosion inhibitors which are degraded to orthophosphate. The increased orthophosphate levels combined with alkaline operating conditions can lead to the formation of highly insoluble calcium phosphate scale deposits which are normally attributed to hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3OH HAP].The key to the efficacy of phosphates and phosphonates in stabilized phosphate and all-organic cooling water treatment formulations is the presence and performance of polymeric inhibitors/dispersants. The performance of polymeric additives used in these formulations is affected by various factors such as polymer architecture feed and recirculating water chemistry pH temperature soluble and insoluble impurities. In this paper the performance of a variety of biopolymers and synthetic polymers as calcium phosphate inhibitors is evaluated under a variety of cooling system impurities. For comparison various commercially available phosphonates were also investigated. Results reveal that polymer performance strongly depends on molecular weight ionic charge of the functional group and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of comonomers. Additionally low levels of residual flocculating/coagulating agents biocides and particulate matter exhibit varying degree of antagonistic effect on inhibitor performance.

Key words: calcium phosphate, inhibition, bio-, hybrid, synthetic polymers, phosphonates, cooling water systems

 

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