Laboratory exposure testing of carbon steel to water from different regions of the United States, with varying chemistries and chloride content. The results of chemical analyses conducted in the laboratory, including elemental analysis by SEM/EDS and analysis by x-ray diffraction are correlated to water chemistry.
A major fire in a Reactor Effluent Air Cooler (REAC) of the Hydrocracker Unit (HCU). Visual inspection was made on the failed portion. Metallurgical investigation, macrostructural and microstructural analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy was conducted on the failed air cooler.
Stray current refers to electric current that flows elsewhere rather than along its intended path. Stray current is a well-known factor in pipeline maintenance and has been discovered to be an important consideration in communication and electric transmission structure maintenance. Corrosion caused by stray current is frequently many magnitudes greater than corrosion that occurs naturally in soil. Stray current may accelerate corrosion on guy anchors of communication towers and electric transmission towers which could lead to reduced service life or catastrophic failure.
In this paper, stray current corrosion risk for galvanized guy anchors is discussed in detail. Identification by structure-to-soil potential measurements is discussed. Stray current case studies are presented. Overall, this paper demonstrates that while stray current corrosion is a significant risk for guyed telecommunication and electric power structures, it can be detected and mitigated. This paper is an overview of the commonly accepted practices of stray current detection and mitigation used today.