Assessment of sigma phase embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels such as Type 304H, commonly used in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units. Other austenitic stainless steels used in other refining process units are also discussed. The detection and measuring of the amount of sigma phase were made using metallography.
This paper reviews the concerns of applying excessive levels of cathodic protection current to pipelines and the need for establishing an upper potential limit. Coating disbondment, hydrogen induced stress cracks, stress corrosion cracking, hard spots and the problems associated with measurement of a true polarized pipe-to-electrolyte potential are addressed.