A top-of-line corrosion (TLC) model integrated into a CO2/H2S corrosion prediction model. The TLC model determines the top of the line corrosion rate of carbon steel based on water chemistry and film-wise condensation rate. The effect of various glycols, such as Monoethylene Glycol, Diethylene glycol and Triethylene Glycol, are included.
The “Field Guide for Managing Iron Sulfide (Black Powder) within Pipelines or Processing Equipment” offers practical guidance for corrosion control and operations personnel in managing black powder within their pipeline systems or processing equipment. It starts with a discussion of what is black powder and identifies health and safety considerations associated with H2S and the presence of black powder, identifying why there may be a concern. The Field Guide presents field and laboratory tests typically used to identify the presence of iron sulfide, and then discusses maintenance pigging and/or chemical treatments for removing such particulates. Several case studies are also presented.
2019 NACE E-Book
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Lay-up is a process that provides internal protection on equipment (pipeline, piping, heat exchanger...etc.) and controls internal corrosion by ensuring water and oxygen-free environments. Corrosion may occur and be accelerated by water contact after hydrostatic testing and even a small amount of stagnant water and oxygen ingress will cause bacteria to grow in water which may result in loss of thickness due to high concentration of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and accelerate internal corrosion in equipment due to Microbiological Induced Corrosion (MIC). Lay-up helps to greatly reduce these risks of internal corrosion and provide assurance of design life. The objective of this study is to identify constructability challenges faced during construction and carry out a lay-up in a cross country pipeline in gaseous services. Six challenges are discussed and explored in the study including: the long duration from water fill to final lay-up, pipeline segments are used as water reservoirs, intermediate/segment lay-up, failure to maintain lay-up, indefinite lay-up periods, and rainwater. A case scenario is used to demonstrate the extent of these challenges and issues. It is hoped that this study will help avoid and minimize these constructability challenges in future cross country gas pipelines projects.