The NORSOK M-506 is an empirical model based on experiments undertaken in a single phase water flow loop. The data is from experiments with low content of iron ions in the water phase, and the model is thus regarded to give a fair representation of the maximum corrosion rate in a CO2 corrosion controlled system.
Performance of formulations of antifouling coatings to protect carbon steel from effects of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and marine biofouling in a tropical harbor seawater was assessed by field and laboratory experiments. • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). • Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). • X-ray diffraction (XRD). • Seawater immersion.
Stress assisted corrosion (SAC) is a major concern for kraft recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. A water leak can cause a smelt-water explosion in the boiler. A number of carbon steel tubes showed a deep decarburized layer on the inner surface (water-touched) and also an unusually large grain size at the inner tube surface.
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of carbon steel in fuel ethanol service has been observed in an increasing number of failures in the last few years. In the presence of oxygen, all of the samples evaluated in this study produced varying degrees of SCC, except for one of the producer ethanol samples. The reason for the high corrosion potential in this sample is still unknown and more detailed analysis of the sample chemical make-up is needed.
This paper studies the effect of oxygen in methanol on the structures and growth kinetics of iron sulfide scales. Gravimetric weight analysis was used to evaluate the corrosion mechanisms and rates. Scanning Electron Microscope/ Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM/EDX), Optical Microscope and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze the scale.
Evaluation of metal-based structures has relied on atmospheric exposure test sites to determine corrosion resistance in marine environments. This work uses surface chemistry and electrochemical techniques to interpret the chemical changes occurring on low carbon and stainless steel during atmospheric and accelerated corrosion conditions to find a correlation between its accelerated and long-term corrosion performance.
Multiple leaks occurred with a carbon steel pipe carrying hot condensate water (300F and 140 psi). A root cause analysis was performed, including visual and metallographic examination of two failed samples chemical, analysis of weld metal and base metal and chemical analysis of water samples. Results show that flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) was the responsible mechanism leading to the failures.