One of the key factors affecting ship performance, particularly fuel consumption and associated GHG (Green House Gas) emissions, is the degree of biofouling on the immersed hull and propeller(s). Rates of biofouling accumulation vary considerably, depending on the suitability, age and physical condition of the coating system(s) applied to the hull, the voyaging, anchoring and lay up patterns of the ship, and the geographical regions where these take place.
Composite repairs have been applied to pipelines and piping systems for structural reinforcement after external corrosion. Such repairs may consist of glass or carbon fibers embedded in a matrix of epoxy. Typically, these repairs are hand applied using either wet lay-up systems or prefabricated rolls of composite sleeve. In some applications, pipeline continued corrosion growth under composite repairs were reported using Inline Inspection (ILI) which raises a concern about the integrity of the metallic piping under composite repairs. When continued corrosion is detected by ILI, a difficulty is typically faced due to the inability to measure pipeline remaining thickness under such repairs. To resolve this challenge, this paper will discuss multiple inspection and corrosion monitoring techniques for metal loss under composite repairs. To measure the pipeline wall thickness due to internal corrosion, one or more of the three (3) Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) technologies namely; Dynamic Response Spectroscopy (DRS), Multi-skip Ultrasonic (MS-UT) and digital radiography were evaluated and found capable. To monitor for external corrosion, a scheduled visual inspection of the composite repair would be the first inspection step. If the composite repair appears to be intact then the visual inspection would suffice and the repair should be acceptable to its design life. If the original defect is external corrosion and a scheduled visual inspection of the composite repair shows damage to the composite repair then inspection to assess the integrity of the substrate must be used before permanently fixing the composite repair. For this scenario, digital radiography or MS-UT are recommended to assess the condition of the substrate
To stay competitive in the corrosion industry, companies must continually be looking for more efficient, safe, and cost-effective ways to inspect and maintain assets. There are many opportunities for the increased use of robotic solutions in all aspects of the corrosion industry, but the primary reasons focus on limiting human intervention for both safety and accuracy.
This book presents the reader with multiple examples of the use of robotic unmanned and remote-controlled systems, be they underground, on the ground, or in the air.
2020 NACE, 6" x 9" trim size, B&W, perfect bound, 62 pages