This study reports the tolerance of phosphonates with hardness ions under a variety of test conditions (i.e., temperature, type and concentration of hardness ions, total dissolved solids, etc.).
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A polyethylene unit experienced a gas leak within a high pressure tube and shell heat exchanger. Failure analysis revealed that the tube wall loss was beneath residual deposits. Preventative measures and improvements in inspection & cleaning procedures are discussed.
Establishment of criteria for the pilot-scale evaluation of the performance of cooling water additives under field-specific operating conditions.
In this paper the performance of a variety of biopolymers and synthetic polymers as calcium phosphate inhibitors is evaluated under a variety of cooling system impurities. For comparison various commercially available phosphonates were also investigated.
Increasing the life expectancy of cooling water equipment through the application of chemical conditioning techniques prior to cooling water exposure. Two steps: (1) cleaning of metal surfaces. (2) Protective film on the metal surfaces. Historical Document 1995
Technologies for on-line monitoring of cooling water systems on a short-term basis (minutes to hours) to provide output to deal with changing conditions in real time. Corrosion rates & changes in heat transfer coefficients with precision and accuracy. Historical Document 1989
This NACE Standard describes a variety of devices used for on-line monitoring of fouling, corrosion, and other parameters in recirculating cooling tower water systems.
Devices used for on-line monitoring of fouling, corrosion, and other parameters in recirculating cooling tower water systems. Methods for collecting test data to determine fouling and corrosion rates. Historical Document 2002
Guidelines for preparing for, recovering from, and repassivation after a low pH excursion... Procedures applicable to mild steel and need to be modified for other materials. Historical Document 1992
On-line monitoring of fouling, corrosion, and other parameters in recirculating cooling tower water systems. Fouling and corrosion rates. Predicting service life. Optimizing operation. Solutions.
Failure analysis for cooling water systems. Causes of cooling system failure. Corrections. Prevention. Design. Operation. Materials. Waterside corrosion, cracking, mechanical damage. Case histories. 2014 McGraw Hill
Three types of test heat exchangers...valuable in many operating cooling towers: (1) Multiple tube steam-heated exchanger (2) Two tube steam-heated exchanger (3) Single tube electrically heated visual monitor Historical Document 1988