Subsea flowlines and risers experience fatigue cycles due to thermal and/or pressure transients or vortex induced vibration (VIV). Tests were performed under constant stress intensity factor (K) levels, in a mildly sour environment and in seawater under cathodic protection to understand the difference in the CRG.
On an increasingly frequent basis, pipeline operators are using risk-based decision making to prioritize cross-company expenditures. Due to the long-term mitigation benefits of Cathodic Protection (CP), when planning external corrosion mitigation activities, pipeline operators typically prioritize mitigation of deeper anomalies for integrity expenditures due to their higher Probability of Failure (PoF). However, anomalies that are not receiving adequate CP or those experiencing electrical interference may remain unaddressed using this rationale. This paper presents both a qualitative and semi-quantitative approach to support the quantification of the risk reduction benefits gained from external corrosion prevention on pipelines. This can help in the efficient prioritization of both pro-active and re-active integrity repair activities. Supporting examples are also discussed to help explain the intended use of the methodology and the interpretation of the results.
Wax coating systems are designed to provide underground pipes with protection against corrosive environments. This standard recommended practice covers surface preparation, material requirements, application, and handling of hot- and cold-applied wax and component wrappers and wax-tape coating systems for the protection of underground pipe, fittings, and valves. This standard is intended for use by corrosion control personnel, design engineers, project managers, purchasers, and construction engineers and managers.