Failure analysis methodology is applied to the principal mechanisms by which boiler tubes fail during service. sThe failure analysis procedure, or methodology for evaluation, is provided in a step by step approach. Among the case histories discussed are: fatigue, erosion, short-term overheating, and hydrogen damage.
Stress assisted corrosion (SAC) is a major concern for kraft recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. A water leak can cause a smelt-water explosion in the boiler. A number of carbon steel tubes showed a deep decarburized layer on the inner surface (water-touched) and also an unusually large grain size at the inner tube surface.