One of the key factors affecting ship performance, particularly fuel consumption and associated GHG (Green House Gas) emissions, is the degree of biofouling on the immersed hull and propeller(s). Rates of biofouling accumulation vary considerably, depending on the suitability, age and physical condition of the coating system(s) applied to the hull, the voyaging, anchoring and lay up patterns of the ship, and the geographical regions where these take place.
This pictorial-based standard is designed to facilitate more consistent descriptions of the degree of biofouling on a vessel hulls, however it is not meant to define the overall fouling condition of the wetted hull.
Corrosion associated with alternating current (AC) interference on buried steel pipelines. AC corrosion characteristics and proposed mechanisms. Approaches to protection and monitoring.
Case histories show that non-visible contamination may result in rapid coating failure. Physical and chemical tests to detect same. Remediation measures. Reagents, materials, tools, procedures & results.
The theoretical basis for the 100 millivolt (mV) cathodic polarization criterion. Effects of other factors such as temperature, mill scale, moisture, and anaerobic bacteria, polarization.